Michael Howard was born in 1941 and educated at Llanelli Grammar School and Peterhouse, Cambridge. In 1962 he was elected President of the Cambridge Union. He was called to the Bar in 1964 and was appointed a QC in 1982.
He was elected Member of Parliament for Folkestone and Hythe in 1983. In 1984 he was appointed Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Solicitor General. The following year he entered the Government as Parliamentary Under Secretary of State at the Department of Trade and Industry with responsibility for corporate and consumer affairs.
In 1987 he moved to the Department of the Environment, first as Minister of State for Local Government and then as Minister of State for Water and Planning. In 1990 he entered the Cabinet as Secretary of State for Employment, abolishing the closed shop and playing a crucial role in negotiating the UKs opt-out from the Social Chapter at Maastricht.
Following the 1992 election, Michael Howard was appointed Secretary of State for the Environment. In this position he played a major role in securing the participation of the USA at the Earth Summit in Rio which he attended on behalf of the Government.
In May 1993 he became Home Secretary, a position he held for four years. During his term of office crime fell by an unprecedented 18%. When he left office, nearly a million fewer crimes a year were being committed than when he became Home Secretary four years previously.
Following the 1997 Election Michael Howard was appointed Shadow Foreign Secretary until his retirement from the Front Bench in June 1999.
In September 2001, under the Leadership of Iain Duncan Smith, he was invited to return to the front bench as Shadow Chancellor where he remained in post until November 2003.
Michael was then elected as Leader of the Conservative Party, a position he held for over two years. He led the Party at the 2005 General Election, the first election in 22 years in which the Party gained a significant number of seats. In that election the Conservative won more votes than Labour in England. Indeed if just 14,500 votes in the 34 seats which give Labour its majority had changed their vote, Labour would have been deprived of its majority.
The day after the election Michael announced his decision to stand down as Leader of the Party, but called for a debate on the future direction of the Party before the commencement of any leadership election. He submitted his resignation in November, and, following the election of David Cameron in December 2005, handed over the leadership to him.
Michael continues to represent Folkestone and Hythe at Westminster.
- university of Paris X, licensee in law (1972) and graduated in Masters in Public Law Advanced studies (1973)
- Graduated from the “institut d’Etudes Politiques de Paris”
- Masters (LLM) 1974 and Doctorate (SJD) 1979, from Harvard Law School
CARREER1973-1975 Research fellow at the Harvard Program for Science and International Affairs
1976-1977 Military service
1977-1979 Research fellow at the Studies Group and the Research on the international Problems (GERPI), Maison des sciences de l’homme of Paris where I worked with Raymond Aron
1979-1988 Research fellow and Deputy Director at the “Institut Français des Relations Internationales” (IFRI)
During the same period:
-columnist for the French weekly “Le Point”, the international edition Newsweek, the International Herald Tribune and the Sekkai Nippo (Tokyo)
-Lecturer “Institut des Sciences Politiques”, the ENR, the INSEAD, the IHEDN and different war schools
1989-1995 Personal adviser to Mr Jacques CHIRAC
1993 Elected as member of the National Assembly (8th constituency, Val d’Oise)
1997 Elected as member of the National Assemblee (8th constituency, Paris)
- RPR, National Secretary in charge of studies
- President of Standing Commission of Foreign Affairs of International Democratic Union (IDU)
- Vice-President Commission of Defence
UNIVERSITY AND PRESS ACTIVITIES
- Columnist “Le Figaro”, member of the international council of the Figaro
- Member of the Council of the London based International Institute for strategic Studies (IISS)
- Member of the Board of Directors of the “Fondation du Futur”
- Member of the Editorial Board of the European Journal of Internatonal Affairs (Rome) and Journal of Arms Control and Security Studies
- Member of the Trilateral Commission
PUBLICATIONSSeveral articles and books on Defense and Foreign Affairs published in France and abroad
- “Le millénaire de l’Apocalypse” in collaboration with Florence Trystam, ed, Flammarion 1982
- “Pacifisme et Dissuasion”-ed. IFRI-Economica-1983
- “La guerre des satellites: enjeux pour la Communauté Internationale”ed IFRI 1987
- “Le Nouveau Monde: de l’ordre de Yalta au désordre des Nations” ed IFRI 1987
- “Légitime Défense: vers une Europe en sécurité au XXIème siècle”, ed Patrick Banon 1996
- “La République immobile” ed Grasset-1998
- “La France et les bombes : les défis de la prolifération des armes de destruction massive” ed Assemblée Nationale 2000
Sam Nunn is co-chairman and chief executive officer of the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), a charitable organization working to reduce the global threats from nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. He served as a United States Senator from Georgia for 24 years (1972-1996) and is retired from the law firm King & Spalding.
Raised in the small town of Perry in middle Georgia, he attended Georgia Tech, Emory University and Emory Law School, where he graduated with honors in 1962. After active duty service in the U.S. Coast Guard, he served six years in the U.S. Coast Guard Reserve. He first entered politics as a member of the Georgia House of Representatives in 1968.
During his tenure in the U.S. Senate, Senator Nunn served as chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee and the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. He also served on the Intelligence and Small Business Committees. His legislative achievements include the landmark Department of Defense Reorganization Act, drafted with the late Senator Barry Goldwater, and the “Nunn-Lugar” Cooperative Threat Reduction Program, which provides assistance to Russia and the former Soviet republics for securing and destroying their excess nuclear, biological and chemical weapons.
In addition to his work with NTI, Senator Nunn has continued his service in the public policy arena as a distinguished professor in the Sam Nunn School of International Affairs at Georgia Tech and as chairman of the board of the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, D.C.